Luke 3v1

The second δέ of Luke 3:1 is interesting and puzzling.

The verse begins with δέ as you would expect, marking a new section of the narrative – a development in the story.

However, as Luke gives us some relevant Roman historical background, the doesn’t simply connect all the phrases with καί, but about halfway through the list, he conjoins two phrases with a second δέ.

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Hebrew Discourse Linguistics

Of the five main types of Hebrew discourse (narrative, hortatory, expository, predictive and procedural) only the first three occur in Jonah. Details of each outlined below based on Tucker’s Handbook on Jonah pages 3-7 (


Seeks to narrative a series of events in a story:

  • Mainline
    • wayiqqtol
    • weqatal – pivitol/climactic event
  • Off-the-line
    • topicalisation: X + qatal
    • embedded direct speech
    • past background: qatal in dependant clause
    • non-past background: yiqtol in dependant clause
    • background activities: participle
    • embedded procedural discourse
    • transition marker: wayiqqtol of היה
    • scene setting: verbless clause
    • irrealis: verb negation by לֹא


“exhort someone to act in a particular mannar”

  • mainline
    • imperative
    • cohortative
    • jussive
    • weqatal
  • off-the-line
    • topicalisation: X + imperative/cohortative/jussive
    • prohibitive comands: אַל or לֹא + yiqtol
    • possibility: yiqtol
    • consequence/purpose: weqatal; לֹא or פֶּן + yiqtol; embedded predictive narrative
    • identification of a problem: embedded historical narrative
    • background activities: participle
    • scene setting: verbless clause


Explains stuff or makes statements.

  • mainline
    • verbless clause
  • off-the-line
    • qatal of היה
    • X + qatal
    • yiqtol + present time reference
    • qatal/yiqtol in dependand clauses
    • embedded discourse