Grammar Revision

Some notes from my revision of 1st Year Greek:

Word classes – there are 8

  • verbs
  • nouns
  • pronouns
  • determiners – e.g. the article
  • adjectives
  • prepositions
  • adverbs
  • conjunctions – words that join clauses
  • particles – words that don’t change form

Phrase types – there are 5

  • verb phrase – a verb/predicate and any dependants
  • noun phrase – a noun and any modifiers
  • prepositional phrase – headed by a preposition
  • adjective phrase – a phrase that modifies a noun
  • adverb phrase – a phrase that modifies a verb

Clause elements – there are 7

  • subject (S)
  • verb/predicate (P)
  • direct object (Od)
  • indirect object (Oi)
  • subject complement (Cs)
  • object complement (Co)
  • adverbial (A)

Clause patterns – there are 5

  1. intransitive: S P
  2. monotransitive: S P Od
  3. ditransitive: S P Oi Od
  4. copular: S P Cs
  5. complex transitive: S P Od Oc

Examples of the 5 different patterns (from the Greek teacher)

  1. She (S) was breathing (P).
  2. Jesus (S) healed (P) the blind man (Od).
  3. The disciples (S) had given (P) him (Oi) the loaves (Od).
  4. You (S) are (P) my friends (Cs).
  5. They (S) made (P) him (Od) king (Co).

First attempt at some reivison: masculine and feminine noun paradigms.

(I’m trying to learn the accents as well as morphology – so let me know any mistakes you spot)

Noun Paradigms

Prepositions and Cases (Hebrew 2:10)

Prepositions take specific case(s) – everyone knows that! I found a nice little example to help you remember. (Or at least, an example that will thoroughly confuse you if you forget). Hebrews 2:10:

δι᾽ ὃν τὰ πάντα καὶ δι᾽ οὗ τὰ πάντα

δια + accusative (ὃν): for (causal)

δια + genitive (οὗ): through (modal)

In bringing many sons and daughters to glory, it was fitting that God,
for whom and through whom everything exists,
should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through what he suffered.

(PS: Warning, more such grammar revision notes coming soon, because I’m doing some revision myself).