main characters introduced. Jonah identified with Jonah in 2 Kings 14:25.
Nineveh introduced as העיר הגדולה. Disagreement about size or importance. Final כי clause: “that” or “because”? Content or reason? Varying nuances of רעה.
Jonah as anti-prophet. repetition of מלפני יהוה.
God’s sovereignty, introduction (1 of 4) to טול. Judgement on Jonah’s action.
Contrast actions of sailors (trying to save, praying) and Jonah’s inactivity (sleeping). Similarity of the call of the sailor and YHWH in v2 (“arise…call out”).
Captains requests of Jonah – that he call out to his god.
Superstition of sailors – determined to find out the cause of the storm. God’s sovereignty demonstrated that the lot fell on Jonah.
Sailors question Jonah.
Jonah only answers their final question (ואי־מזה עם אתה). YHWH fronted in Jonah’s answer. YHWH is not a local deity he is אלהים השׁמים. More than that he is lord of the sea and dry land. He is, therefore, the one responsible for and able to stop the סער.
Sailors fear greatly and ask what Jonah thinks he is playing at?!
Sailors enquire what is required to do to calm the sea.
Jonah tells sailors to lift him up and throw him over board.
Sailors try to row back, unable to do so.
Pray to God.
Jonah’s overboard. Sea stands still.
Sailors recognise that v9 is true and so sacrifice and vow to YHWH.