John 2:24

This verse has 4 occurrences of αύτος in it:

αὐτὸς δὲ Ἰησοῦς οὐκ ἐπίστευεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν πάντας

αύτος in predicative position as emphatic pronoun (Duff, 102) “he himself”.

αὐτὸν and αὐτοῖς form the construction ‘double accusative of person and thing’ (Wallace 181).

αὐτὸν is accusative as the subject of the infinitive (γινώσκειν; Duff 203).


But* he himself did not entrust himself to them because he know all people.

* I think it’s ok to translate δε here in a contrastive way because John is telling is what Jesus did in contrast to the crowd in v23.

I-Yod Verbs

I might be wrong; but I think I’ve got everything covered when I say that there are only three options for a I-Yod verb:

  1. It says where it is but quiesces – so it’s obvious. (for example יָטַב in imperfect is יִיטַב)
  2. It disappears:
    1. like a I-Nun – so look for a dagesh in the second root letter – but this type is quite rare.
    2. The vowel under the preformative undergoes compensatory lengthening (i.e. it goes to a tsere instead of a hireq)
  3. It changes into a waw (in stems like Niphal, Hiphil and Hophal)


I keep forgetting how gen/dat/acc of times work. So I’m writing it down (again) here to aid my memory

genitive – during (Wallace p122)

accusative – duration/how long (Wallace, p201)

dative – point, when (Wallace, 155)

I’ve found some when I was translating some of John today:

John 3:2 οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς

John 2:20 εἶπαν οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, Τεσσεράκοντα καὶ ἓξ ἔτεσιν οἰκοδομήθη ὁ ναὸς οὗτος, καὶ σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν;

Parsing Hebrew Verbs

Some simple rules to follow that help:

  1. No Hebrew verbs begin with two of the same letter. For example, תתן doesn’t exist, so any verb that has a dagesh in the middle radical is most probably a I-Nun.
  2. Missing root letter + vowel under preformative (not tsere or qamets) = III-He verb.
  3. Missing root letter + tsere under preformative + missing letter = 1st root letter is missing; it’s probably a yod (I-yod).
  4. Missing root letter + qamets under preformative = 2nd letter missing, hollow verb
  5. If there is only one root letter showing = prob I-Nun and III-He.
  6. Most III-He verbs were originally III-Yod verbs – so in many III-He forms the He drops out and the original yod returns.
  7. a taw at the end of a verb = infinitive of a I-yod, I-waw or I-nun.